The information on this page is taken from the Wikipedia - online encyclopedia page on Penguins.

Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are an order of flightless birds living in the southern hemisphere.

Although all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not, contrary to popular belief, found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin actually live so far south. Three species live in the tropics; one lives as far north as the Galágos Islands (the Galágos Penguin) and will occasionally cross the equator while feeding.

There are either 17 or 18 known species worldwide, depending on whether the two Eudyptula species are counted as distinct. The largest species is the Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): adults average about 1.1 meters (3 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 35 kilograms (75 lb) or more. The smallest penguin species is the Little Blue Penguin (also known as the Fairy Penguin), which stands around 40 cm tall (16 in) and weighs 1 kilogram (2.2 lb).

Diving penguins reach 6 to 12 km/h, though there are reports of velocities of 27 km/h.